Formative assessments are ongoing, repetitive measures designed to provide information to both the instructor and students concerning students' understanding of small segments of course material. As an integrated approach to assessment and instruction, formative assessments emphasize mastery of course material as opposed to evaluation of performance or assignment of grades. Formative assessments are conducted throughout the instructional process to monitor students' progress and provide feedback on strengths and weaknesses. The key to formative assessment is the role of feedback; this feedback allows students to correct conceptual errors and encourages instructors to modify instructional activities in light of their effectiveness. Since formative assessments are designed to guide learning and are not utilized as an outcome measure, they are generally considered a low stakes assessment. With the emphasis on student-centered instructional strategies, instructors are encouraged to actively integrate formative assessments into the course mix.
Insight on students' strengths and conceptual errors in relation to specific course concepts
Guidance to improve student understanding
A means of monitoring progress in learning
Diagnostic information concerning students' errors in understanding
A non-threatening environment to identify and correct problems in learning and instruction
Feedback to the instructor concerning the effectiveness of instructional activities
Formative assessments must directly relate to learning objectives and instructional activities. When designing a formative assessment, target a singular objective so that assessment results can be effectively utilized to guide activities toward overall course goals.
While formative assessments may be very short and informal, be sure that all activities are purposeful and goal-directed. Do not use formative assessments unless there is a clear purpose related to specific course activities or concepts.
Effective formative assessments must provide feedback. Since the goal of formative assessment is to identify and correct conceptual errors, instructors must ensure that students have relevant information to guide their understanding. Feedback may be either peer or instructor directed as long as it is specific to the learning activity and assessment results.
Since formative assessments are a low stakes measure, it may be difficult to motivate students' performance. To encourage active participation, formative assessments must be relevant and engaging.
Both the formative assessment and accompanying feedback must be timely to course activities, theories, and concepts. This is especially important to prevent encoding of incorrect information.
To be most effective, formative assessments must be ongoing. By continually assessing and providing opportunities for correction, instructors can guide students toward desired learning outcomes.
Aiken, L. R. (2000). Psychological testing and assessment (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Angelo, T. A. (1991). Classroom research: Early lessons from success. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Chatterji, M. (2003). Designing and using tools for educational assessment. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Gronlund, N. (2003). Assessment of student achievement. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Huba, M., & Freed, J. (2000). Learner-centered assessments on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2002). Meaningful assessment: A manageable and cooperative process. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
McKeachie, W .J. (1999). Teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Popham, W. J. (2000). Modern educational measurement: Practical guidelines for educational leaders. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Trice, A. (2000). A handbook of classroom assessment. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Questions concerning the Park University CETL Quick Tips website should be directed to email@example.com.